• MOOC coordinators Manuel Gertrudix Barrio & Rubén Arcos Martín
  • Content written by Giorgos Triantafyllou
  • Multimedia design by Claudia Martín-Carnerero Lara & Alejandro Carbonell Alcocer
  • Visual Identity by Juan Romero Luis

Analogue meets Digital

What are the main security threats affecting European liberal democracies in the digital era?

In the digital era, the dissemination of information has become easier and faster, allowing for generalized freedom of expression, boosting media diversity and increasing civic engagement and political participation. At the same time, digital technologies have facilitated the spread of disinformation, exacerbated identity politics, magnified biases and deepened existing divisions in public attitudes. As such, digital technologies have revealed a whole new array of challenges for the societal cohesion and internal stability of liberal democracies.

Positive effects of digital technologies to liberal democracies:

  • Micro-targeting and hyper-nudging a segment of one
  • 24/7 news streaming (social media)
  • Democratisation of storytelling
  • Instant online feedback to politicians

Security challenges of digital technologies to liberal democracies:

  • Manipulation of electoral processes
  • Deep fakes
  • Drop in press freedom
  • Volatile voting patterns
  • Polarisation and influence of the fringe
  • Fragmented parliaments; harder consensus-building
  • Disenchantment with its repressentatives
  • EU increasingly divisive issue


Methodology and Resources